Session 6: Sensors, MEMS, and BioMEMS Focus Session: Wearables for the Internet-of-Things (IoT)
Monday, December 5, 1:30 p.m.
Continental Ballroom 6
Co-Chairs: Aroka Nathan, Cambridge University
Montserrat Fernandez-Bolanos, EPFL
6.1 High Performance, Flexible CMOS Circuits and Sensors Toward Wearable Healthcare Applications (Invited), K. Takei, Osaka Prefecture University
Macroscale, flexible, and/or stretchable electronics enable to collect a variety of information by attaching it on diverse objects including nonplanar surfaces such as human body. To realize the devices, there are several technical challenges such as (1) low-cost, macroscale sensor network formation, (2) low power and high performance flexible circuits, and (3) other flexible components including battery and wireless communications. In this study, we propose and develop a low power flexible circuit platform using inorganic material-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) on a flexible substrate and printed macro-scale, multi-functional sensor networks to address the challenges.
6.2 Circuits and Systems for Energy Efficient Smart Wearables (Invited), A. Sharma, T. Pande, P. Aroul, K. Soundarapandian and W. Lee, Texas Instruments Inc.
Wearable devices and the associated push to smart health management have become an important facet of the Internet of Things. Wearable technology – with its diverse use cases, signal transduction mechanisms and unique software/ processing requirements – is an ideal lens through which to study the broader Internet of Things. This paper investigates the unique challenges in wearable technology by using optical heart rate monitoring as an example. Strategies encompassing process technology, devices, circuits, systems and algorithms are leveraged to achieve the trifecta of good performance, low power and small form factor.
6.3 Flexible Metal-oxide Thin Film Transistor Circuits for RFID and Health Patches (Invited), P. Heremans, N. Papadopoulos, A. de Jamblinne de Meux, M. Nag, S. Steudel, M. Rockele, G. Gelinck*, A. Tripathi**, J. Genoe and K. Myny, imec, *Holst Centre, **IIT Kanpur
We discuss in this paper the present state and future perspectives of thin-film oxide transistors for flexible electronics. The application case that we focus on is a flexible health patch containing an analog sensor interface as well as digital electronics to transmit the acquired data wirelessly to a base station. We examine the electronic performance of amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) during mechanical bending. We discuss several ways to further boost the electronic transistor performance of n-type amorphous oxide semiconductors, by modifying the semiconductor or by improving the transistor architecture. We show analog and digital circuits constructed with several architectures, all based on n-type-only amorphous oxide technology. From circuit point of view, the discovery of a p-type amorphous semiconductor matching known n-type amorphous semiconductors would be of great importance. The present best-suited p-type is SnO, but it is poly-crystalline in nature and shows some ambipolarity due to the presence of n-type SnO2. In search of a better p-type semiconductor, preferably amorphous, we present recent insights into the band structure of potential amorphous oxide p-type semiconductors.
6.4 Challenges and Opportunities in Flexible Electronics (Invited), R. Bringans and J. Veres, PARC, A Xerox Company
Flexible electronics has an exciting potential for enabling roll-able, foldable displays, smart patches and smart packaging on paper and plastic substrates. Fabrication options and associated promise and challenges will be discussed, with an emphasis on printing technologies and the integration of large area, flexible electronics with chips.
6.5 Advanced Integrated Sensor and Layer Transfer Technologies for Wearable Bioelectronics (Invited), A. Alharbi, B. Nasri, T. Wu and D. Shahrjerdi, New York University
We discuss two emerging technologies that are central for realizing an optically powered flexible bioelectronic platform. First, we discuss layer transfer through controlled spalling technology for producing high-performance flexible electronics. We present two examples: (1) advanced-node ultra-thin body silicon integrated circuits on plastic, and (2) flexible GaAs photovoltaic energy harvesters. Second, a 4-terminal biosensor is presented that is compatible with ultra-thin body silicon CMOS technology. Through in vitro glucose sensing, we demonstrate that the 4-terminal integrated biosensor enables the amplification of biochemical signals at the device level. These advanced technologies can give rise to an unprecedented boost in the performance of wearable devices.
6.6 Wearable Sweat Biosensors (Invited), W. Gao, H. Nyein, Z. Shahpar, L.-C. Tai, E. Wu, M. Bariya, H. Ota, H. Fahad, K. Chen and A. Javey, University of California, Berkeley
Wearable perspiration biosensors enable real-time analysis of the sweat composition and can provide insightful information about health conditions. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in wearable sweat sensing platforms and detection techniques. Specifically, on-body monitoring of a wide spectrum of sweat biomarkers are illustrated. Opportunities and challenges in the field are discussed. Although still in an early research stage, wearable sweat biosensors may enable a wide range of personalized diagnostic and physiological monitoring applications.
6.7 Flexible Metamaterials, Comprising Multiferroic Films (Invited), Y.P.Lee, Y. J. Woo, Y. J. Kim, H. M. Son and J. S. Hwang, Hanyang University
The metamaterial (MM) devices on flexible substrates provide a new dimension in manipulating electromagnetic (EM) waves. This work reports MMs realized on flexible and elastomeric substrates, along with the relevant techniques and approaches. Future directions are mentioned with the promise to translate MMs into practical devices. We also present a multiferroic nano-composite film where BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles (NPs) were evenly dispersed into highly-insulating polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. The multiferroic (MF) properties of the film were revealed, such as the saturated ferroelectric curves due to the cut-off of current leakage. Moreover, the prepared films show high flexibility and their multiferroicities are preserved well even in a high curved condition, reflecting the possibility for fabricating wearable devices based on MF materials.